In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Association for Energy Economics (IRAEE)

Document Type : Quarterly Journal


1 Ph.D. Student of Economics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran South Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor of Economics and Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Economics, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Planning and policy making in the field of economic growth as one of the major macroeconomic goals requires special attention to the energy sector, the environment and its relation to production. Hence, in this paper, the effects of energy consumption shocks on carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth in selected countries of the MENA have been studied using the PVAR approach as well as Iran using the VAR method, and the results indicate that the energy shocks would initially lead to a relatively high increase and then a decrease in per capita GDP in the selected countries. The energy shock also initially increased carbon dioxide emissions and subsequently reduced pollution in subsequent periods and will move to the balance in long-term; also, in the Iranian economy, a shock to energy consumption first begans to sharply increase in economic growth after four periods, and eventually returns to a long-term equilibrium. Eventually, with a shock in total energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions are mildly increased and then begin to decrease from the third period. Total energy consumption, foreign direct investment, labor force, and capital stock have a direct and significant relationship with economic growth, but carbon dioxide emissions have a significant negative relationship in Iran's economy.


Main Subjects

بهبودی، داوود؛ اصغرپور، حسین و قزوینیان، محمدحسن (1388). "شکست ساختاری، مصرف انرژی و رشد اقتصادی ایران (1384-1346)". فصلنامه پژوهش‌های اقتصادی، دوره 9، شماره 3، 84-53.
بهبودی، داوود؛ بهشتی، محمدباقر و موسوی، سها (1389). "توسعة انسانی و توسعة پایدار در کشورهای منتخب صادر کننده نفت". مجلة علمی پژوهشی دانش و توسعه، سال هفدهم، شماره 33، 124-102.
بهبودی، داوود؛ فلاحی، فیروز و برقی گلعذانی، اسماعیل (1389). "عوامل اقتصادی و اجتماعی مؤثر بر انتشار سرانه دی اکسیدکربن در ایران". مجلة تحقیقات اقتصادی، شماره 90، 17-1.
پژویان، جمشید و لشکری‌زاده، مریم (1389). "بررسی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر رابطه میان رشد اقتصادی و کیفیت زیست‌محیطی". فصلنامه پژوهش‌های اقتصادی ایران، سال چهاردهم، شماره 42، 188-169.
فطرس، محمدحسن و نسرین دوست، میثم (1388). "بررسی رابطه آلودگی هوا، آلودگی آب، مصرف انرژی و رشد اقتصادی در ایران". مطالعات اقتصاد انرژی، سال 6، شماره 21، 135-113.
قزوینیان، محمدحسن (1386). "بررسی شکست ساختاری در رابطه مصرف انرژی و رشد اقتصادی در ایران". پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تبریز، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی.
کهنسال، محمدرضا و شایان مهر، سمیرا (1395). "آثار متقابل مصرف انرژی، رشد اقتصادی و آلودگی محیط زیست: کاربرد الگوی معادلات همزمان فضایی داده‌های تابلویی". پژوهشنامه اقتصاد انرژی ایران، سال پنجم، شماره 91، 216-179.
مهدوی عادلی، محمد و نظری، روح الله (1393). "رشد اقتصادی، انرژی و محیط زیست". فصلنامه اقتصاد مقداری (بررسی‌های اقتصادی سابق)، دوره 11، شماره 1، 40-19.
مهرآرا، محسن؛ امیری، حسین و حسنی سرخ بوزی، محمد (1391). "رابطه مصرف انرژی و درآمد: آزمون فرضیه زیست محیطی کوزنتس با استفاده از رویکرد مدل‌های رگرسیونی انتقال ملایم پانل". فصلنامه پژوهش‌ها و سیاست‌های اقتصادی، دوره 20، شماره ۶۲، ۱۹۴-171.
Acaravci, A. & Ozturk, I. (2010). “On the Relationship between Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth in Europe”. Energy, 35(12), 5412-5420.
Adeolu, O., Adewuyi, O. & Awodumi, B. (2017). “Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy-Growth-Emissions Linkages: Review of Emerging Trends with Policy Implications”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Elsevier, 69(C), 275-291.
Andreano, M., Laureti, S. & Lucio, P. (2013). “Economic Growth in MENA Countries: Is There Convergence of Per-Capita GDPs?”. Journal of Policy Modeling,35, 669–683.
Ang, J. B. (2007). “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption and Output in France”. Energy Policy, 35, 4772-4778.
Ang, J. B. (2008). “Economic Development, Pollutant Emissions and Energy Consumption in Malaysia”. Journal of Policy Modeling, 30, 271-278.
Antonakakis, N., Chatziantoniou, I. & Filis, G. (2015). “Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth; A Moral Dilemma”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 68, 808-824.
Anwar, S. & Nguyen, L. P. (2010). “Absorptive Capacity, Foreign Direct Investment- linked Spillovers and Economic Growth in Vietnam”. Asian Business and Management, 9, 553-570. 
Apergis, N. & Payne, J. E. (2009b). “Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Central America: Evidence from a Panel Cointegration and Error Correction Model”. Energy Economics, 31(2), 211-216.
Arouri, M. H., Ben Youssef, A., M’Henni, H. & Rault, C. (2012). “Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in Middle East and North African Countries”. CESifo Group Munich Working Paper Series, 3726.
Bikash, C., Khandakar, J. & Osmani, A. (2014). “Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption: The Case of Bangladesh”. International Journal of Business and Economics Research, 3(6), 220-227.
Bozkurt, C. & Akan, Y. (2014). “Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption: The Turkish Case”. International Journal Energy Econ Policy, 4(3), 484–494.
Burcu, O. (2013). “The Nexus between Carbon Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Middle East Countries: A Panel Data Analysis”. Energy Policy, 62, 1138–1147.
Chang, C. (2010). “A Multivariate Causality Test of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China”. Appl Energy, 87(11), 3533–3537.
Farhani, S., Chaibi, A. & Rault, C. (2014). “CO2 Emissions, Output, Energy Consumption, and Trade in Tunisia”. Economic Modelling, 38, 426-434.
He, J., Zhuang, T. & Xie, X. (2014). “Energy Consumption, Economic Development and Environmental Improvement in China”. Energy & Environment, 25(8), 1345-1357.
Holtz Eakin, D., Newey, W. & Rosen, H. (1988). “Estimating Vector Autoregression with Panel Data”. Econometrica, 56, 1371-1395.
International Renewable Energy Agency (2016). “Renewable Energy Benefits: Measuring of Economics”.
IPCC (2016). “Climate Change 2016, Synthesis Report, Summary for Policymakers, URL report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM. Pdf.
IRBD (1992). “World Development Report 1992: Development and the Environment”. New York: Oxford University Press.
Johansen, S. (1988). “Statistical Analysis of Cointegrating Vectors”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, 231-254.
Kahia, M., Kadria, M. & Ben Aissa, M. (2016). “What Impacts of Renewable Energy Consumption on CO2 Emissions and the Economic and Financial Development? A Panel Data Vector Autoregressive (PVAR) Approach”, IEEE.
Katsuya, I. (2017). “CO2 Emissions, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption, and Economic Growth: Evidence from Panel Data for Developing Countries”. International Economics, Elsevier, 151(C), 1-6.
Kuznets, S. (1955). “Economic Growth and Income Equality”. American Economic Review, 45, 1-28.
Long Xingle, A. B. N., Naminse, E., Yaw, A. C., Jianguo Du, A. & Jincai, Z. (2015). “Nonrenewable Energy, Renewable Energy, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth in China from 1952 to 2012”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 680–688.
Love, I. & Ziccino, L. (2006). “Financial Development and Dynamic Investment Behaviour: Evidence from Panel VAR”. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 46, 190-210.
Magazzino, C. (2014). “A Panel VAR Approach of the Relationship among Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions, and Energy Use in the ASEAN-6 Countries”. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 4(4), 546-553.
Magazzino, C. (2016). “Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions and Energy Use in the South Caucasus and Turkey: a PVAR Analyses”. International Energy Journal, 16, 153-162.
Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L. & Randers, J. (1972). “Limits to Growth”. New York: Universe Book.
Menyah, K. & Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). “Energy Consumption, Pollutant Emissions and Economic Growth in South Africa”. Energy Economics, 32, 1374–1382.
Narayan, P. K. & Narayan, S. (2010). “Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: Panel Data Evidence from Developing Countries”. Energy Policy, 38, 661–666.
Nguyen, A. N. & Nguyen, T. (2007). “Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam: An Overview and Analysis of the Determination of Spatial Distribution”. Working Paper Development and Policies Research Center, Hanoi, Vietnam.1- 68.
Oganesyan, M. (2017). “Carbon Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the BRICS”. Master Thesis in Economics, Jonkoping University.
Omri, A. )2013(. “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus in MENA Countries: Evidence from Simultaneous Equations Models”. Energy Economics, 40, 657–664.
Papiez, M. )2013). “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Visegrad Group Countries: A Panel Data Analysis”. 31st International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics, 696-701.
Shahbaz, M., Hye, Q., Tiwari, A. K. & Leito, N. C. (2013). “Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, International Trade and CO2 Emissions in Indonesia”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 109-121.
Shahbaz, M., Ozturk, I., Afza, T. & Ali, A. (2013). “Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve in a Global Economy”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 494-502.
Soytas, U. & Sari, R. (2009). “Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, and Carbon Emissions: Challenges Faced by an EU Candidate Member”. Ecological Economics, 68, 1667-1675.
Soytas, U., Sari, R. & Ewing, B. T. (2007). “Energy Consumption, Income, and Carbon Emissions in the United States”. Ecological Economics, 62, 482-489.
Stern, D. & Cleveland, C. J. (2004). “Energy and Economic Growth”. Rensselaer Working Papers, No.0410, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
Tiwari, A. K. (2011). “Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth: Evidence from INDIA”. Journal of International Business and Economy, 12(1), 85-122.
Wang, S. S., Zhou, D. Q., Zhou, P. & Wang, Q. W. (2011). “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China: A Panel Data Analysis”. Energy Policy, 39, 4870-4875.
Yang, Z. & Zhao, Y. (2014). “Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions, and Economic Growth in India: Evidence from Directed Acyclic Graphs”. Economic Modelling, 38, 533-540.
Zhang, X. & Cheng, X. (2009). “Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions, and Economic Growth in China”. Ecological Economics, 68, 2706-2712.
Zuo, H. & Danxiang, A. (2011). “Environment, Energy and Sustainable Economic Growth”. Procedia Engineering, 21, 513–519.
Zuo, Y., Ying-ling, S. & Yu-zhuo, Z. (2017). “Research on the Sustainable Development of an Economic-Energy-Environment (3E) System Based on System Dynamics (SD): A Case Study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China”. Sustainability, 9, 1-23.